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2018年中考英语考试知识点:定语从句
2017-09-07 09:51:46 中考网(www.zhongkao5.com)一切为考生服务:点击:

2018年中考英语考试知识点:定语从句

今天中考查分网小编为大家整理了英语的一些辅导资料,来帮助大家提高英语学习能力,希望各位考生在2018年中考中取得优异的成绩.

Match the two sentences:

1.I’m reading a book. The book is about Bill Gates.

I’m reading a book is about Bill Gates.

2.He is a teacher. The teacher teaches us Chinese.

He is a teacher teaches us Chinese.

3.I don’t like the man. He is smoking.

I don’t like the man is smoking.

4.Where is the picture? You bought it last week.

Where is the picture you bought last week?

定语从句:在复合句中修饰名词、代词的从句叫定语从句。

先行词:被定语从句修饰的名词或代词叫先行词。

定语从句一般放在先行词后面。

例:

关系代词

关系词:引导定语从句的词称为关系词。关系词分为

关系代词(that, which, who, whom, whose)

关系副词(when, where, why)。

关系代词在从句中充当主语、宾语、定语等成分,关系副词在句中作状语。

关系代词which, that引导的定语从句:

如果先行词是表示物体的名词或代词,关系代词应用which, that(作主语或宾语)

关系代词作为主语时不能省略,作为宾语是可以省略。

例:

作为主语不能省略:

This is a dream.

The dream will never come true.

The dog has been found.

The dog was lost.

The book is mine.

The book is lying on the floor.

作为宾语能省略:

This is the card.

I’ve just received the card.

This is the mistake.

I always make the mistake.

I still keep the letters.

She wrote letters to me.

I lost the pen.

my father bought me the pen.

关系代词who, that, whom, whose引导的定语从句:

如果先行词是表示人的名词或代词,关系代词用who,that(作主语或宾语)

whom (作宾语)

whose(作定语)

例:

作主语不能省略:

This is the film star.

The film star is very popular in China.

The boy is called Roy.

The boy broke the window.

Do you know the man?

The man spoke at the meeting yesterday.

The girl is my cousin.

The girl is watering the flowers.

例:

做宾语能省略:

The man is a famous writer.

He described the man just now.

(作宾语)

The boy is my friend.

I'm looking for the boy.

The thief has been sent to prison.

The police caught the thief last night.

whose作定语,表示所属关系。

The boy is my friend.

The boy’s father is a policeman.

They are helping the man.

The man’s car is broken.

Please pass me the book.

The cover of the book is red.

例:

( B )A child _____ parents are dead is called an orphan( 孤儿).

A. who B. whose C. who’s D. which

只能用that,不用which,常见的情况有六种:

1. 当先行词是all, any, few, little, none,

anything, everything, nothing , everybody,

nobody, everyone, no one 或被这些词所修饰时。

That’s all that I know.

Is there anything that I can do for you?

He answered few questions that the teacher asked.

2. 当先行词被形容词最高级或序数词修饰时。

That is the most boring book that I have ever read.

The first thing that I should do is to do my homework.

3. 当先行词有the very, the only, the same等修饰时。

That’s the only thing that I can do now.

These are the very words that he used.

This is the same bike that I lost.

4. 当主句以who或which开头时,定语从句的关系词用that,而不用which或who.

Who is the girl that spoke to you just now?

Which is the pen that you lost ?

5. 先行词同时包括人或物时,关系词用that.

The man and his dog that I always meet are standing by the gate.

6. 主句是there be 结构,修饰主语的定语从句用that,而不用which.   ??

There is a book that belongs to Tom on the desk.

关系词只能用which,而不用that的情况:

1.先行词为that, those时

What’s that which is under the desk?

2.关系代词前面有介词时

This is the room in which he lives.

3.引导非限制性定语从句

Tom came back, which made us happy.

关系词只能用whom,而不用that/who的情况:

关系代词前面有介词时

He is the boy with whom my mother is talking.

who/which/that在定语从句中做主语时,谓语动词的单复数应与先行词保持一致。

1) I prefer shoes that are cool.

2) I like a pizza that is really delicious.

3) I love singers who are beautiful.

4) I have a friend who plays sports.

Exercise 1 :用关系代词填空

1.The boy _ _ is playing ping-pong is my classmate.

2.The e-mail ___________ I received yesterday was from my sister.

3.I hate people ______________ talk much but do little.

4.The car _____________ my father bought last month is very beautiful.

5. The man _ __ hair is white is his grandfather.

6. Is there a student __ __ father is a business man?

7. This is the house in we have lived for 10 years.

8.I’ve never heard of the people and things _ you talked about just now.

9.Say all __ __ you know.

10.Is there anything _ I can do for you?

11.This is the first play I have seen since I came here.

12. This is the best novel I have read.

13.Who is the girl __ _is standing under the tree?

14. Which is the machine we used last Sunday.

定语从句关系副词的用法:

1、Where指地点,在从句中充当地点状语。

This is the place where we lived ten years ago.

=in which

2、When指时间,在从句中充当时间状语。

He told me the date when he joined the Party.

=on which

3、Why指原因,在定语从句中充当原因状语。

I know the reason why she was so angry.

=for which

关系副词when, where和关系代词that, which的区别:

同样是修饰一个地点,有时使用where,有时使用that/which;

同样是修饰一个时间,有时使用when,有时使用that/which。这主要看两点:

1、先行词在从句中所作成分;

2、定语从句中的谓语动词是否 一个及物动词。

1.This is the park (which/ that )we visited last year.

This is the park where we held a birthday party.

= in which

2. She won’t forget the days (which/ that) she spent on the island.

She won’t forget the day when they stayed together.

= on which

分析例题:

1) This is the factory _ _ I visited last year.

2) This is the factory _ _ I worked last year.

3) This is the factory produces all kinds of TV sets.

A. where B. which C. whom D. whose

以上三个句子只有细微的差别,但答案却不同:做这种题时,要通过还原先行词,看先行词在定语从句中所充当的成分;

1)还原为: I visited the factory.是动宾关系,因此选 which

2)还原为: I worked in the factory,factory应在定语从句中作地点状语,因此选 where

3)还原为: the factory produces all kinds …是作定语从句中的主语,不作地点状语,因此选which

4)Can you lend me the novel _ _ the other day?

A. that you talked

B. you talked about it

C. which you talked with

D. you talked about

还原后为:You talked about the novel the other day.故it要删掉,先行词在句中作宾语,关系代词可以用which/that或者不填。

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